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Table 5 Prevalence of mycotoxin contamination presented by feed matrixa

From: Chemical assessment of mycotoxin contaminants and veterinary residues in Costa Rican animal feed

Average ± standard deviation Maximum mycotoxin concentration ± Ux/x, μg kg−1 Minimum mycotoxin concentration ± Ux/x, μg kg− 1 Number of samples above recommended guideline/legislative threshold Prevalence, %[Samples over limit of detection, (n)]
Feed ingredients (n = number of events over limit of detection)
Rice meal (n = 2)
  Zearalenone (2000 μg kg− 1)
  109.51 ± 103.13 212.64 ± 25.98 6.38 ± 0.78 0 100.00 [2]
 Forage (n = 9)
  Aflatoxin G2 (50 μg kg− 1 total aflatoxins)c
  1.54 ± 0.24 1.78 ± 0.22 1.30 ± 0.16 0 22.22 [2]
  Citrinin
  18.28 ± 11.58 29.86 ± 3.65 6.71 ± 0.82 0 22.22 [2]
  α-zearalenone
  13.76 ± 1.17 14.93 ± 1.82 12.60 ± 1.54 0 22.22 [2]
  Aflatoxin B2 (50 μg kg−1 total aflatoxins)c
  3.01 ± 1.57 4.58 ± 0.56 0.87 ± 0.11 0 33.33 [3]
Wheat Middlings (n = 11)
  3-acetyldeoxynivalenol
  1630.85 ± 1605.71 3566.81 ± 435.83 2465.29 ± 301.24 0 18.18 [2]
  Aflatoxin B1 (50 μg kg− 1 total aflatoxins)c
  0.055 ± 0.038 0.093 ± 0.011 0.016 ± 0.002 0 18.18 [2]
  Enniatin B
  3016.05 ± 550.76 3566.81 ± 435.83 2465.29 ± 301.24 0 18.18 [2]
  Enniatin B1
  23.91 ± 19.48 43.39 ± 5.30 4.43 ± 0.54 0 18.18 [2]
  Fumonisin B1 (60,000 μg kg−1 FB1 + FB2) c
  707.74 ± 282.62 1043.86 ± 127.55 352.39 ± 43.06 0 27.27 [3]
 Soybean meal (n = 14)
  Diacetoxyscirpenol
  324.61 ± 22.83 347.43 ± 42.45 301.78 ± 36.88 0 14.29 [2]
  HT-2 toxin (500 μg kg−1 sum T-2/HT-2) c
  97.03 ± 76.52 173.55 ± 21.21 20.50 ± 2.51 0 14.29 [2]
  Ochratoxin B
  108.60 ± 71.90 180.50 ± 22.06 36.69 ± 4.48 0 14.29 [2]
  T-2 toxin
  24.37 ± 19.75 44.12 ± 5.39 4.61 ± 0.56 0 14.29 [2]
  Deoxynivalenol (8000 μg kg−1)c
  88.49 ± 127.88 364.11 ± 44.49 1.56 ± 0.19 0 42.86 [6]
Corn meal (n = 40)
  Aflatoxin G1 (50 μg kg− 1 total aflatoxins)c
  0.40 ± 0.13 0.53 ± 0.07 0.27 ± 0.03 0 5.00 [2]
  Deoxynivalenol (8000 μg kg− 1)c
  18.51 ± 2.84 21.35 ± 2.61 15.67 ± 1.91 0 5.00 [2]
  Nivalenol
  95.23 ± 70.59 165.82 ± 20.26 24.64 ± 3.01 0 5.00 [2]
  Ochratoxin B
  6.43 ± 0.15 6.57 ± 0.80 6.28 ± 0.77 0 5.00 [2]
  α-zearalenone
  38.43 ± 0.15 76.61 ± 9.36 0.26 ± 0.03 0 5.00 [2]
  15-acetyldeoxynivalenol
  103.53 ± 129.77 286.92 ± 35.06 6.10 ± 0.74 0 7.50 [3]
  Aflatoxin B1 (50 μg kg− 1 total aflatoxins)c
  0.93 ± 0.14 1.13 ± 0.14 0.82 ± 0.10 0 7.50 [3]
  Zearalenone (2000 μg kg− 1)
  917.53 ± 969.07 2287.31 ± 279.49 194.79 ± 23.80   7.50 [3]
  3-acetyldeoxynivalenol
  685.86 ± 388.15 965.07 ± 117.92 16.20 ± 1.98 0 10.00 [4]
  Fumonisin B1 (60,000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  1050.06 ± 906.51 2926.98 ± 357.65 226.56 ± 27.68 0 20.00 [8]
  Fumonisin B2
  578.55 ± 669.59 2308.56 ± 282.56 106.59 ± 13.02 0 25.00 [10]
Compound feed
Shrimp feed (n = 2)
  Sterigmatocystin
  908.81 ± 337.73 1246.54 ± 152.32 571.09 ± 69.78 0 100.00 [2]
  Ingredientsb†: corn meal (max 15%), soybean meal (max 75%), DDGS, palm kernel meal (max 30%), wheat middlings (max 20%), rice meal and bran (max 15%), soybean hulls.
Sheep feed (n = 6)
  Fumonisin B1 (5000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  282.62 ± 118.66 347.28 ± 42.44 109.95 ± 13.44 0 33.33 [2]
  Fumonisin B2 (5000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  120.72 ± 40.23 160.95 ± 19.67 80.49 ± 9.84 0 33.33 [2]
  Zearalenone (500 μg kg− 1) c
  299.24 ± 50.63 349.87 ± 42.75 248.61 ± 30.38 0 33.33 [2]
  Ingredientsb†: corn meal (max 45%), Soybean meal (max 13%), DDGS (max 20%), palm kernel meal, wheat middlings (max 25%), rice bran, soybean hulls (max 20%).
Pet food (dog dry food, n = 8)
  Aflatoxin G1
  3.10 ± 0.77 3.86 ± 0.47 2.33 ± 0.28 0 25.00 [2]
  Fumonisin B1 (5000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  2007.52 ± 1808.45 4554.36 ± 556.51 531.75 ± 64.98 0 37.50 [3]
  Fumonisin B2 (5000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  2163.60 ± 1106.76 1056.84 ± 137.85 3270.36 ± 426.57 0 37.50 [3]
  Ingredientsb †: corn meal (max 50%), DDGS (max 25%), palm kernel meal, wheat middlings (max 20%), rice meal and bran (max 20%).
Poultry feed (n = 16)
  Aflatoxin G1 (20 μg kg− 1 total aflatoxins) c
  0.78 ± 0.85 1.97 ± 0.24 0.05 ± 0.01 0 18.75 [3]
  Deoxynivalenol (5000 μg kg− 1)c
  28.34 ± 13.90 42.24 ± 5.16 14.44 ± 1.76 0 12.50 [3]
  Fumonisin B2 (20,000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  1897.00 ± 2898.09 6911.99 ± 844.59 72.19 ± 8.82 0 25.00 [4]
  Fumonisin B1 (20,000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  471.74 ± 277.98 953.09 ± 116.46 88.97 ± 10.87 0 37.50 [6]
  Ingredientsb†: corn meal (no restriction), soybean meal (no restriction), DDGS (max 10–15%), palm kernel meal (3–3.5%), wheat middlings (max 3–3.5%), rice bran and polishings (max 3–3.5%), soybean hulls (max 3–3.5%).
Calf feed (n = 24)
  Deoxynivalenol (2000 μg kg− 1)c
  31.48 ± 31.30 62.79 ± 7.67 0.20 ± 0.02 0 8.33 [2]
  Enniatin B1
  36.28 ± 36.13 72.41 ± 8.85 0.15 ± 0.02 0 8.33 [2]
  Enniatin B
  586.63 ± 154.23 711.74 ± 86.97 369.35 ± 45.13 0 12.50 [3]
  HT-2 toxin (500 μg kg− 1 sum T-2/HT-2) c
  88.15 ± 69.86 182.35 ± 22.28 15.28 ± 1.87 0 12.50 [3]
  Fumonisin B1 (20,000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  446.45 ± 117.84 676.88 ± 82.71 293.22 ± 35.83 0 29.17 [7]
  Fumonisin B2 (20,000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  615.73 ± 886.97 2773.27 ± 338.87 102.46 ± 12.52 0 29.17 [7]
  Ingredientsb†: corn meal (no restriction), soybean meal (no restriction), DDGS (12–15%), palm kernel meal (max 10–15%), wheat middlings (max 10–20%), rice bran and polishings (max 10–20%), soybean hulls (max 10%), citrus pulp (10%).
 Poultry layer feed (n = 28)
  3-acetyldeoxynivalenol
  166.14 ± 33.98 200.13 ± 24.45 132.16 ± 16.15 0 7.14 [2]
  Aflatoxin G1 (20 μg kg− 1 total aflatoxins) c
  0.47 ± 0.35 0.82 ± 0.10 0.12 ± 0.01 0 7.14 [2]
  Zearalenone (250 μg kg− 1) c
  415.74 ± 140.17 555.91 ± 67.93 275.57 ± 33.67 2 7.14 [2]
  Deoxynivalenol (5000 μg kg− 1)
  42.98 ± 7.38 50.36 ± 6.15 35.60 ± 4.35 0 7.14 [2]
  HT-2 toxin (500 μg kg− 1 sum T-2/HT-2) c
  8.45 ± 6.11 16.81 ± 2.05 0.0017 ± 0.002 0 17.86 [5]
  Fumonisin B1 (20,000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  446.65 ± 244.52 956.92 ± 116.93 173.01 ± 21.14 0 25.00 [7]
  Fumonisin B2 (20,000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  657.81 ± 1079.21 3507.81 ± 428.62 124.39 ± 15.20 0 28.57 [8]
  Ingredientsb†: corn meal (no restriction), soybean meal (no restriction), DDGS (max 10–15%), palm kernel meal (3–3.5%), wheat middlings (max 3–3.5%), rice bran and polishings (max 3–3.5%), soybean hulls (max 3–3.5%).
Beef cattle feed (n = 51)
  Aflatoxin B2 (50 μg kg− 1 total aflatoxins)c
  11.43 ± 10.96 22.39 ± 2.74 0.46 ± 0.06 1 3.92 [2]
  Aflatoxin G1
  2.08 ± 1.79 1.94 ± 1.86 3.79 ± 0.46 0 3.92 [2]
  Zearalenone (500 μg kg− 1) c
  281.79 ± 134.83 416.62 ± 50.91 146.95 ± 17.96 0 3.92 [2]
  15-acetyldeoxynivalenol
  23.40 ± 17.96 41.36 ± 5.05 5.44 ± 0.66 0 3.92 [2]
  Deoxynivalenol (5000 μg kg− 1)c
  26.21 ± 6.69 32.90 ± 4.02 19.52 ± 2.39 0 3.92 [2]
  Enniatin B
  638.80 ± 279.21 1115.50 ± 136.30 239.59 ± 29.28 0 9.80 [5]
  Enniatin B1
  25.09 ± 6.86 34.56 ± 4.22 18.50 ± 2.26 0 5.88 [3]
  α-zearalenone
  20.37 ± 8.41 32.24 ± 3.94 13.83 ± 1.69 0 5.88 [3]
  Ochratoxin A (250 μg kg− 1) c
  176.26 ± 171.92 525.17 ± 64.17 12.38 ± 1.51 2 15.69 [8]
  Fumonisin B1 (50,000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  554.52 ± 374.96 1635.38 ± 199.83 227.42 ± 27.79 0 21.57 [11]
  Fumonisin B2 (50,000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  570.07 ± 816.10 3013.12 ± 368.18 38.27 ± 4.68 0 21.57 [11]
  Ingredientsb†: corn meal (no restriction), soybean meal (no restriction), DDGS (12–15%), palm kernel meal (max 10–15%), wheat middlings (max 10–20%), rice bran and polishings (max 10–20%), soybean hulls (max 10%), citrus pulp (10%).
Swine feed (lactating and gestating sows and pig grower, n = 54)
  Aflatoxin G1 (20 μg kg− 1 total aflatoxins) c
  2.60 ± 0.40 3.00 ± 0.37 2.20 ± 0.27 0 3.70 [2]
  Aflatoxin G2
  11.54 ± 11.41 22.95 ± 2.80 0.13 ± 0.02 1 3.70 [2]
  Deoxynivalenol (900 μg kg− 1)
  83.85 ± 12.58 96.43 ± 11.78 71.27 ± 8.71 0 3.70 [2]
  Enniatin B
  1456.62 ± 1139.02 2595.64 ± 317.17 317.59 ± 38.81 0 3.70 [2]
  Ochratoxin A (50 μg kg− 1) c
  90.03 ± 86.31 176.34 ± 21.55 3.72 ± 0.46 1 3.70 [2]
  T-2 toxin (500 μg kg− 1 sum T-2/HT-2) c
  26.27 ± 13.20 39.47 ± 4.82 13.06 ± 1.60 0 3.70 [2]
  α-zearalenone
  183.64 ± 89.11 272.74 ± 33.33 94.53 ± 11.55 0 3.70 [2]
  Zearalenone (100 μg kg− 1) c
  3413.07 ± 3105.16 6518.23 ± 796.47 307.91 ± 37.62 2 3.70 [2]
  15-acetyldeoxynivalenol
  21.11 ± 21.95 51.81 ± 6.33 1.74 ± 0.21 0 5.56 [3]
  3-acetyldeoxynivalenol
  97.43 ± 108.61 279.19 ± 34.11 6.84 ± 0.84 0 5.56 [3]
  HT-2 toxin (500 μg kg− 1 sum T-2/HT-2) c
  24.02 ± 9.15 36.28 ± 4.43 14.31 ± 1.75 0 5.56 [3]
  Fumonisin B1 (5000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  701.61 ± 718.91 2715.10 ± 331.76 233.69 ± 28.55 0 25.93 [14]
  Fumonisin B2 (5000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  1395.61 ± 2149.99 8019.99 ± 979.98 103.26 ± 12.62 1 25.93 [14]
  Ingredientsb†: corn meal (no restriction), soybean meal (no restriction), DDGS (max 10%), palm kernel meal (max 10%), wheat middlings (max 20–25%), rice bran and polishing (max 20–25%), soybean hulls (no restriction).
Dairy cattle feed (n = 186)
  Aflatoxin B1 (50 μg kg− 1 total aflatoxins)c
  0.15 ± 0.04 0.19 ± 0.02 0.11 ± 0.01 0 1.07 [2]
  Neosolaniol
  57.14 ± 7.61 64.75 ± 7.91 49.53 ± 6.05 0 1.07 [2]
  Ochratoxin B
  16.41 ± 4.04 20.45 ± 2.50 12.37 ± 1.51 0 1.07 [2]
  Sterigmatocystin
  387.83 ± 57.81 445.63 ± 54.45 330.02 ± 40.33 0 1.07 [2]
  β-zearalenone
  499.65 ± 271.62 771.27 ± 94.24 228.03 ± 27.86 0 1.07 [2]
  15-acetyldeoxynivalenol
  29.94 ± 8.99 38.38 ± 4.69 17.49 ± 2.14 0 1.62 [3]
  3-acetyldeoxynivalenol
  159.61 ± 145.15 352.24 ± 43.04 1.88 ± 0.23 0 1.62 [3]
  Aflatoxin G2
  1.43 ± 1.32 3.49 ± 0.43 0.24 ± 0.03 0 2.15 [4]
  Citrinin
  21.86 ± 19.03 52.48 ± 6.41 3.51 ± 0.43 0 2.15 [4]
  Enniatin B1
  58.67 ± 29.56 104.91 ± 12.82 27.14 ± 3.32 0 2.69 [5]
  Ochratoxin A (250 μg kg− 1) c
  50.99 ± 56.73 158.70 ± 19.39 3.67 ± 0.45 0 2.69 [5]
  Deoxynivalenol
  25.87 ± 26.44 82.60 ± 10.09 0.75 ± 0.09 0 3.22 [6]
  Aflatoxin G1
  2.95 ± 1.31 5.75 ± 0.70 1.60 ± 0.19 0 3.76 [7]
  T-2 toxin (500 μg kg− 1 sum T-2/HT-2) c
  47.19 ± 44.97 137.81 ± 16.84 1.67 ± 0.20 0 4.30 [8]
  HT-2 toxin
  60.14 ± 88.86 303.22 ± 37.05 5.02 ± 0.61 0 5.38 [10]
  α-zearalenone
  38.05 ± 24.95 96.21 ± 11.76 8.40 ± 1.03 0 5.38 [10]
  Enniatin B
  477.01 ± 259.96 914.05 ± 111.69 147.78 ± 18.06 0 6.99 [13]
  Zearalenone (250 μg kg− 1) c
  294.51 ± 286.20 1107.81 ± 135.37 54.54 ± 6.66 3 8.06 [15]
  Fumonisin B1 (50,000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  460.62 ± 508.11 3133.88 ± 382.93 124.77 ± 15.25 0 19.89 [37]
  Fumonisin B2 (50,000 μg kg− 1 FB1 + FB2) c
  685.45 ± 1321.61 8088.95 ± 988.40 52.76 ± 6.45 0 24.73 [46]
  Ingredientsb†: corn meal (no restriction), soybean meal (no restriction), DDGS (12–15%), palm kernel meal (max 10–15%), wheat middlings (max 10–20%), rice bran and polishings (max 10–20%), soybean hulls (max 10%), citrus pulp (10%).
  1. aOnly samples with n > 1 and toxins with more than one incident were included
  2. bPlant-derived constituents according to guaranteed labels, data in parenthesis indicates maximum inclusion recommended for each ingredient during feed formulation. FAO (2018), INRA (2012), FEDIAF (2016), Martínez Marín (2008), NRC (2001), Rostagno et al. (2017)
  3. cData in parenthesis indicates maximum permitted or recommended toxin concentrations (Pettersson 2012)