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Table 4 Prevalence of mycotoxin contamination in agricultural commodities intended for animal consumption in Costa Rica

From: Chemical assessment of mycotoxin contaminants and veterinary residues in Costa Rican animal feed

Samples (n, counts) Prevalence, %[Samples over limit of detection, (n)] Minimum mycotoxin concentration ± Ux/x, μg kg− 1 Maximum mycotoxin concentration ± Ux/x, μg kg− 1
Concentration rangea, μg kg− 1    
x < LoD x < 5 5 ≤ x < 10 10 ≤ x <  20 x ≥ 20
 Aflatoxin B 2
196 6 0 2 1 4.39 [9] 0.46 ± 0.06 22.39 ± 2.73
 Aflatoxin G 1
195 9 0 0 1 4.88 [10] 0.13 ± 0.01 22.95 ± 2.80
 Aflatoxin B 1
193 11 0 1 0 5.85 [12] 0.016 ± 0.002 12.61 ± 1.54
 Aflatoxin G 2
179 24 1 1 0 12.68 [26] 0.054 ± 0.007 19.14 ± 2.34
x < LoD x <  250 250 ≤ x < 500 500 ≤ x < 1000 x ≥ 1000    
 β-zearalenol
202 1 0 1 1 1.46 [3] 228.03 ± 27.86 1900.62 ± 232.24
 Nivalenol
199 5 0 0 1 2.93 [6] 16.71 ± 2.04 1202.75 ± 146.98
3-acetyldeoxynivalenol
186 11 3 3 1 8.78 [18] 1.88 ± 0.23 3236.56 ± 395.51
 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol
186 16 3 0 0 9.27 [19] 1.74 ± 0.21 355.60 ± 43.45
 α-zearalenol
183 20 1 1 0 10.73 [22] 0.25 ± 0.03 920.65 ± 112.50
 Deoxynivalenol
180 24 1 0 0 12.20 [25] 0.20 ± 0.02 364.10 ± 44.49
 Zearalenone
170 18 8 4 5 24.75 [35] 70.37 ± 80.60 6518.28 ± 796.54
x < LoD 50 < x 125 ≤ x < 250 250 ≤ x < 500 x ≥ 500    
 Fusarenone-X
203 0 0 0 2 0.98 [2] 64.49 ± 7.93 470.52 ± 57.99
 Diacetoxyscirpenol
198 2 1 3 1 3.41 [7] 42.92 ± 5.25 1132.19 ± 138.34
 Citrinin
197 8 0 0 0 3.90 [8] 0.34 ± 0.03 52.48 ± 6.41
x < LoD 5 < x 10 ≤ x < 25 25 ≤ x < 50 x ≥ 50    
 Patulin
203 0 0 0 2 0.98 [2] 56.65 ± 6.92 88.56 ± 10.82
 Neosolaniol
201 0 0 1 3 1.95 [4] 49.52 ± 6.05 911.64 ± 111.39
 Ochratoxin B
199 2 2 1 1 2.93 [6] 6.28 ± 0.77 180.50 ± 22.05
 Ochratoxin A
184 3 3 4 11 10.24 [21] 3.64 ± 0.44 590.79 ± 72.19
x < LoD x < 250 250 ≤ x < 500 500 ≤ x < 1000 x ≥ 1000    
 Sterigmatocystin
199 0 2 2 2 2.93 [6] 330.02 ± 40.32 1246.54 ± 152.32
 Enniatin B 1
190 15 0 0 0 7.32 [15] 0.16 ± 0.02 158.43 ± 19.36
 T-2 toxin
187 17 1 0 0 8.78 [18] 1.67 ± 0.20 254.17 ± 31.06
 HT-2 toxin
181 23 1 0 0 11.71 [24] 6.38 ± 0.78 303.22 ± 37.05
 Enniatin B
174 5 11 10 5 15.12 [31] 143.11 ± 17.49 3566.81 ± 435.83
x < LoD x < 1250 1250 ≤ x < 2500 2500 ≤ x < 5000 x ≥ 5000    
 Fumonisin B 1
103 92 6 4 0 49.76 [102] 43.64 ± 5.33 4554.36 ± 556.36
 Fumonisin B 2
95 88 10 8 4 53.66 [110] 24.01 ± 2.93 8646.67 ± 1056.64
  1. aThresholds based on guidance values for mycotoxins in animal feeds within the European Union (Peng et al. 2018)