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Table 2 Contaminant concentrations in typical mineral imported supplements employed in feedingstuff manufacture

From: Inorganic contaminants and composition analysis of commercial feed grade mineral compounds available in Costa Rica

Assaya Mean SD Median Max Min Guideline value or guaranteed analysis
Calcium and phosphorus-containing mineral sources
Dicalcium phosphate, n = 22
bArsenic, mg/kg[2; 9.1 %] (4; 18.2 %) 2.88 7.14 0.30 26.68 9.8 × 10−3 <10
bMercury, μg/kg[8; 36.4 %] 96.18 80.69 71.00 392.50 6.89 <100
Lead, mg/kg 1.89 1.50 1.51 6.23 4.8 × 10−2 <15
Cadmium, mg/kg 1.94 2.46 0.29 6.73 1.8 × 10−3 <10
bFluorine (×10−2), g/100 g[1; 4.5 %] 8.9 4.6 8.2 26.0 2.1 12.0 – 21.0 (<20.0)
Monocalcium phosphate, n = 22
Arsenic, mg/kg(4; 18.2 %) 3.9 × 10−1 5.8 × 10−1 1.1 × 10−1 2 4,9 × 10−2 <10
bMercury, μg/kg[12; 54.5 %] 118.85 72.04 110.73 364.00 21.10 <100
bLead, mg/kg(2; 9.1 %) [2; 9.1 %] 38.16 153.47 0.48 706.00 5.4 × 10−2 <15
Cadmium, μg/kg 2.76 1.82 2.19 6.96 1.6 × 10−3 <10
Fluorine (×10−2), g/100 g 7.6 4.4 9.8 14.0 1.0 <0.21 (<0.20)
Calcium carbonate, n = 21
Arsenic, μg/kg(7; 33.3 %) 383.4 199.4 362.7 818.5 50.9 <1.5 × 104
Mercury, μg/kg(5; 23.8 %) 73.0 45.6 72.0 185.8 5.6 <300
bLead, mg/kg(2; 9.5 %) [1; 4.8 %] 14.4 60.5 0.2 270.9 1.4x10−2 <20
Cadmium, μg/kg 647.7 559.3 382.9 1.7x103 1.3 <1.0 × 104
Iodine-containing mineral sources
Calcium iodate, n = 7
Arsenic, μg/kg(1; 14.3 %) 244.9 143.15 196.0 451.4 83.0 <1.5 × 104
bMercury, μg/kg(1; 14.3 %) [1;14.3 %] 164.8 103.75 116.4 334.0 64.99 <300
bLead, mg/kg(1; 14.3 %) [1;14.3 %] 12.3 23.5 0.5 64.4 3.5 × 10−2 <20
Cadmium, μg/kg(2; 28.6 %) 47.4 34.0 41.9 110.5 10.3 <2.0 × 103
Microgran™ I 10 % BMP (calcium iodide), n = 10
Arsenic, mg/kg(3; 30.0 %) 0.69 1.32 0.18 3.92 3.0 × 10−2 <30
Mercury, μg/kg(1; 10.0 %) 98.5 40.6 115.8 143.68 17.5 <200
Lead, μg/kg(3; 30.0 %) 183.7 98.9 163.0 363.0 55 <1.0 × 105
Cadmium, μg/kg 146.1 18.9 149.3 168.4 112.9 <1.0 × 104
Etilendiamine diiodide, n = 7
Arsenic, μg/kg(2; 28.7 %) 65.0 42.3 64.1 118 13.98 <3.0 × 104
Mercury, μg/kg(1; 14.3 %) 104.3 31.0 116.1 131.3 45.7 <200
Lead, μg/kg(1; 14.3 %) 170.9 73.1 148.0 301.0 78.0 <1.0 × 105
Cadmium, μg/kg(2; 28.7 %) 319.8 502.5 35.7 1190 17.5 <1.0 × 104
Potassium Iodide, n = 7
Arsenic, μg/kg(2; 28.6 %) 237.9 171.0 156.5 509.6 57.0 <3.0 × 104
Mercury, μg/kg 117.7 71.9 102.2 245.7 10.3 <200
bLead, mg/kg(2; 28.6 %), [1;14.3 %] 42.3 83.7 0.25 209.6 5.7 × 10−2 <100
Cadmium, μg/kg(1; 14.3 %) 150.8 163.8 35.0 382.4 34.9 <1.0 × 104
Cobalt-containing mineral sources
Cobalt carbonate, n = 13
Arsenic, mg/kg(5; 38.5 %) 7.4 × 10−1 1.6 9.5 × 10−2 5.10 1.3 × 10−2 <30
bMercury, μg/kg[1; 7.7 %] 97.3 69.5 97.5 302.0 23.9 <200
Lead, μg/kg(3; 23.1 %) 664.5 582.8 414.0 1920.0 2.3 <1.0 × 105
Assaya Mean SD Median Max Min Guideline value or guaranteed analysis
Cadmium, μg/kg(6; 46.1 %) 34.0 19.6 38.0 55.7 8.3 <5.0 × 103
Cobalt sulfate, n = 11
Arsenic, μg/kg(3; 27.3 %) 65.2 61.4 32.8 151.2 18.0 <3.0 × 104
Mercury, μg/kg 81.7 29.6 80.0 133.7 28.2 <200
Lead, mg/kg(2; 18.2 %) 17.6 37.3 1.26 101.0 7.0 × 10−3 <100
Cadmium, μg/kg 835.3 880.8 192.3 2.2 × 103 66.1 <5.0 × 103
Microgran™ Co 5 % BMP (cobalt carbonate), n = 13
Arsenic, mg/kg(8; 61.5 %) 1.07 1.65 0.36 4.72 3.42 × 10−2 30
bMercury, μg/kg(1; 7.7 %), [2; 15.4 %] 95.0 58.0 83.1 220.7 37.0 <200
Lead, mg/kg(4; 30.8 %) 16.2 48.2 1.4 × 10−1 160.7 1.8 × 10−3 <100
Cadmium, μg/kg 84.3 78.2 34.1 239.2 0.95 <5.0 × 103
Copper-containing mineral sources
Copper oxide, n = 19
Arsenic, mg/kg(1; 5.3 %) 2.38 2.19 2.25 8.38 1.29 × 10−1 100
bMercury, μg/kg(1; 5.3 %), [3; 15.8 %] 128.4 88.8 99.1 384.5 48.3 <200
bLead, mg/kg[12; 63.1 %] 96.0 113.2 60.9 455.0 3.80 × 10−1 <30
bCadmium, mg/kg(1), [3; 15.8 %] 3.09 2.31 1.85 7.41 1.09 × 10−1 <5
Copper sulfate, n = 18
Arsenic, μg/kg(1; 5.5 %) 500.6 537.4 366.3 2.29 × 103 18.4 5.0 × 104
Mercury, μg/kg 69.4 35.1 69.4 118.3 9.04 <200
Lead, mg/kg(2; 11.1 %) 9.9 10.2 8.8 39.8 4.4 × 10−2 <100
Cadmium, μg/kg(4; 22.2 %) 544.0 1.2 × 103 150.8 4.1 × 103 4.41 <5.0 × 103
Sodium containing mineral sources
Sodium chloride, n = 23
Arsenic, mg/kg(16; 69.6 %) 101.1 61.1 97.5 231.0 15.7 30
Mercury, μg/kg(4; 17.4 %) 80.6 43.4 85.0 157.0 1.2 <200
bLead, mg/kg[1; 4.5 %], (15; 65.2 %) 26.2 68.8 1.7 × 10−1 208.4 4.6 × 10−2 <100
Cadmium, mg/kg(5; 21.3 %) 1.21 3.12 3.4 × 10−2 9.46 4.2 × 10−3 <5
Iron-containing mineral sources
Ferrous carbonate, n = 21
Arsenic, mg/kg 6.50 5.07 5.55 19.4 1.15 30
bMercury, μg/kg[3; 14.3 %] 149.0 142.9 110.2 594.0 8.3 <200
Lead, mg/kg 14.51 17.35 7.44 72.06 1.1 × 10−2 <200
Cadmium, mg/kg(2; 9.5 %) 0.73 1.36 1.0 × 10−1 4.45 7.7 × 10−3 <5
Ferric oxide, n = 16
Arsenic, mg/kg(1; 6.2 %) 6.38 5.28 4.89 18.49 1.7 × 10−2 30
bMercury, μg/kg[3; 18.7 %] 155.1 126.1 122.1 603.0 26.2 <200
Lead, mg/kg 8.94 13.57 2.67 49.18 1.14 <100
bCadmium, mg/kg(4; 25.0 %), [1; 6.2 %] 0.82 1.95 7.0 × 10−2 6.31 1.1 × 10−2 <5.0 × 103
Ferrous sulfate, n = 17
Arsenic, μg/kg(4; 23.5 %) 1323.7 3395.1 118.2 12750 3.02 3.0 × 104
Mercury, μg/kg 169.4 319.7 100.2 1439.0 23.8 <200
bLead, mg/kg(2; 11.8 %), [1; 5.9 %] 34.8 96.1 8.8 393.00 3.1 × 10−2 <100
Cadmium, μg/kg(6; 35.3 %) 45.8 30.7 45.1 107.1 6.1 <5.0 × 103
Assaya Mean SD Median Max Min Guideline value or guaranteed analysis
Magnesium-containing mineral sources
Magnesium oxide, n = 21
Arsenic, μg/kg(8; 38.1 %) 944.4 1289.9 559.4 5200.0 1.3 2.0 × 104
bMercury, μg/kg(1; 4.8 %), [2; 9.5 %] 81.1 72.1 68.1 287.0 6.6 <200
Lead, mg/kg(11; 52.4 %), [1; 4.8 %] 39.0 135.8 7.7 × 10−1 628.1 6.0 × 10−2 <100
Cadmium, μg/kg(4; 19.0 %) 54.4 79.6 28.0 262.1 7.7 <5.0 × 103
Magnesium sulfate, n = 18
Arsenic, μg/kg(8; 44.4 %) 288.1 297.8 75.1 784.7 7.38 2.0 × 103
Mercury, μg/kg 86.0 34.9 79.1 164.1 5.02 <200
Lead, mg/kg(11; 61.1 %) 5.1 11.5 2.4 × 10−1 33.2 2.2 × 10−2 <100
Cadmium, μg/kg(10; 55.5 %) 18.5 13.7 10.4 40.6 3.6 <5.0 × 103
Manganese-containing mineral sources
Manganous oxide, n = 21
Arsenic, mg/kg 28.6 18.3 29.0 61.2 1.2 100
bMercury, μg/kg [6; 28.6 %] 348.6 543.0 198.1 2.6 × 103 1.23 <200
Lead, mg/kg 28.5 19.6 26.1 79.8 2.7 × 10−2 <200
bCadmium, mg/kg(1; 4.8 %), [6; 28.6 %] 2.84 2.25 3.47 5.49 2.0 × 10−3 <5
Manganese sulfate, n = 15
Arsenic, μg/kg(4; 26.7 %) 418.8 470.2 271.9 1.6 × 103 18.8 2.0 × 104
Mercury, μg/kg 67.2 41.9 69.3 163.4 6.2 <200
Lead, μg/kg(8; 53.3 %) 1.3 × 103 2.1 × 103 265.2 5.0 × 103 6.3 <1.0 × 105
Cadmium, μg/kg(2; 13.3 %) 1.1 × 103 1.5 × 103 287.2 4.0 × 103 48.11 <5.0 × 103
Sulfur-containing mineral sources
Elemental sulfur, n = 20
Arsenic, μg/kg(15; 75.0 %) 76.1 38.0 71.2 145.8 39.4 2.0 × 104
bMercury, μg/kg[6; 30.0 %] 21.4 52.1 1.7 × 10−1 149.0 2.6 <200
Lead, mg/kg(13; 65.0 %) 1.6 × 10−1 5.2 × 10−2 1.6 × 10−1 2.4 × 10−1 6.9 × 10−2 <100
Cadmium, μg/kg(7; 35.0 %) 30.6 15.4 30.3 52.4 4.5 <5.0 × 103
Zinc-containing mineral sources
Zinc oxide, n = 22
Arsenic, μg/kg(1; 4.5 %) 1.3 × 103 2.3 × 103 365.2 9.8 × 103 12.75 <1.0 × 105
bMercury, μg/kg[2; 9.1 %] 133.1 181.0 78.9 882.0 16.1 <200
Lead, mg/kg 55.8 68.2 26.5 252.0 2.5 × 10−2 <400
bCadmium, μg/kg(1; 4.5 %), [1; 4.5 %] 2.5 × 103 1.7 × 103 2.8 × 103 5.0 × 103 5.03 <5.0 × 103
Zinc sulfate, n = 18
Arsenic, μg/kg(11; 61.1 %) 347.4 667.2 83.9 2.0 × 103 15.79 2.0 × 104
Mercury, μg/kg(1; 5.5 %) 95.6 44.8 81.4 186.6 28.7 <200
Lead, mg/kg(8; 44.4 %) 2.9 × 10−1 2.3 × 10−1 2.1 × 10−1 7.0 × 10−1 5.9 × 10−2 <100
bCadmium, μg/kg[1; 5.5 %] 2.7 × 103 2.9 × 103 1.8 × 103 1.2 × 104 1.75 <5.0 × 103
Selenium-containing mineral sources
Microgran™ Se 1 % BMP (sodium selenite), n = 13
Arsenic, μg/kg (5; 38.5 %) 544.7 721.8 310.8 2.4 × 103 10.2 <2.0 × 104
bMercury, μg/kg[4; 30.8 %] 148.4 126.7 118.9 457.5 28.0 <200
Lead, μg/kg(9; 69.2 %) 6.1 × 10−1 6.0 × 10−1 4.0 × 10−1 1.6 2.4 × 10−2 <1.0 × 105
Assaya Mean SD Median Max Min Guideline value or guaranteed analysis
Cadmium, μg/kg 133.5 82.8 162.2 230.8 17.1 <5.0 × 103
Sodium selenite 1 %, n = 11
Arsenic, μg/kg(5; 45.5 %) 1.4 × 103 9.6 × 102 1.4 × 103 2.8 × 103 172.9 2.0 × 104
bMercury, μg/kg[3; 27.3 %] 165.8 87.5 146.1 330.7 33.44 <200
Lead, μg/kg(1; 9.1 %) 32.5 50.6 7.2 × 102 1.1 × 103 13.3 1.0 × 105
Cadmium, μg/kg 625.2 344.9 725.7 1.1 × 103 13.3 <5.0 × 103
Sodium selenite, n = 8
Arsenic, μg/kg(2; 25.0 %) 3.1 × 103 2.3 × 103 2.9 × 103 7.2 × 103 6.0 × 102 2.0 × 104
bMercury, μg/kg[4; 50.0 %] 264.0 146.4 241.5 462.0 93.9 <200
Lead, mg/kg(4; 50.0 %) 3.79 3.36 3.45 8.16 1.5 × 10−1 <100
Cadmium, μg/kg(5; 62.5 %) 34.8 10.1 34.8 44.9 24.7 <5.0 × 103
Potassium-containing mineral sources
Potassium Chloride, n = 17
Arsenic, μg/kg(10; 58.8 %) 188.1 210.9 124.3 672.2 9.6 2.0 × 104
Mercury, μg/kg(1; 5.9 %) 85.3 46.4 81.1 181.3 3.9 <200
Lead, μg/kg(6; 35.6 %) 69.3 110.1 4.5 × 10−1 323.1 5.5 × 10−2 1.0 × 105
Cadmium, μg/kg(8; 47.0 %) 120.9 187.1 50.1 492.7 3.4 × 10−1 <5.0 × 103
  1. aNumbers in parenthesis represent the number (n) of samples that are not detected using our current method of analysis. bRepresent minerals for which at least one sample’s concentration is above the European guidelines and square brackets represent the actual number of samples in this situation