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Table 2 Parameters tested for the extraction of paraquat from soya bean meal. Parameters that were finally used for the extraction of the samples are indicated in bold

From: Monitoring of Paraquat in soya products intended for animal feed

Parameter Variation
Particle size 1 mm; 0.5 mm
Water addition Yes (10 mL); None
Soaking time of water 0 min; 15 min; 30 min; 45 min; 60 min
Extraction apparatus Horizontal shaker; orbital shaker; ultrasonic bath
Extraction solvent 1 % formic acid in MeOH
  5 % formic acid in MeOH
  5 % formic acid in MeOH/H2O (45/50, v/v)
  MeOH/0.1 M HCl (50/50, v/v)
  MeOH/0.5 M HCl (50/50, v/v)
  MeOH/0.1 M HCl (60/40, v/v)
  MeOH/0.5 M HCl (60/40, v/v)
  MeOH/0.75 M HCl (60/40, v/v)
  MeOH/1 M HCl (60/40, v/v)
Extraction volume 10 mL; 25 mL
Extraction temperature Room temperature; 80 °C
Extraction time 15 min; 30 min; 60 min; 90 min; 120 min
Soaking time of extraction solvent None; 15 min; 30 min; 45 min; 60 min
Dilution of extract solution Undiluted; 1:10; 1:5; 1:2
Clean-up Solid phase extraction using Strata® WCX; Oasis® HLB; None