Skip to main content

Table 7 Antibiotic residues found in Costa Rican animal feed after routine inspections

From: Chemical assessment of mycotoxin contaminants and veterinary residues in Costa Rican animal feed

Animal feed Phase Antibiotic Concentration (mg kg−1)
Medicated Animal feed [Number of prevalent samples, n]
 Poultry feed [2] Startc,d Tetracycline 7.39
Florfenicol 80.07
Narasin 227.68
Growthc Tetracycline 26.93
Florfenicol 287.51
Doxycycline 68.54
Narasin 44.03
 Pig feed [1] Finalc Tetracycline 5.45
Narasin 2.04
Non-medicated Animal feed [Number of prevalent samples, n]
 Poultry feed [22] Start [3] Tetracycline 30.61
Monensina 23,.0
Narasina 36,517.25
Growth [3] Monensin 163.25–13.84
Final [4] Tetracycline 13.65
Monensin [3] 37.05–0.45
Layer [12] Monensin 191.69–7.34
 Pig feed [19] Start [3] Monensin 20.51–25.69
Growth [11] Tetracycline 6.21
Demeclocycline 354.46
Narasin 142.55
Monensin [8] 49.03–5.17
Final [5] Tetracycline [2] 12.21–10.76
Monensin [3] 27.91–22.99
 Fish and shrimp feed [5] Not indicated 4-epioxitetracycline 159.94
Monensin [4] 741.45–13.36
 Dairy cattle feed [2] Not indicated Monensin 3258.86–57.04
 Horse feed [1] Not indicated Doxycycline 101.86
 Raw material [1] Corn meal Monensin 27.25
Summary
Average ± SD Median Max Min Prevalence, % [Samples below limit of detection, counts (n)]
Concentration, mg kg−1
 4-epianhydrotetracycline
  (1.21 ± 1.97)× 101 1.21× 101 1.23× 101 1.19× 101 2.22 [88]
 Doxycycline
  1.66 × 102 ± 6.38× 101 1.66 × 102 2.29 × 102 1.02 × 102 2.22 [88]
 Florfenicol
  (1.09 ± 1.17) × 103 4.52 × 102 3.12 × 103 3.53 × 102 4.44 [86]
 Narasin
  (2.73 ± 8.26) × 103 5.89×101 3.65 × 104 9.00 × 10−1 24.44 [68]
 Monensin
  (1.57 ± 4.99) × 102 2.33×101 3.26 × 103 2.57 × 10−1 58.89 [37]
Target analytes with one eventb
Antibiotic Concentration ± Ux/x, mg kg−1
 Cloramphenicol 7.12 ± 2.04
 Erythromycin 11.22 ± 3.22
 Virginiamycin 33.00 ± 9.46
 Sulfamethazine 143.98 ± 41.28
 4-epioxytetracycline 159.94 ± 45.86
 Minocycline 193.82 ± 55.57
 Chlortetracycline 252.29 ± 72.33
 Demeclocycline 354.46 ± 101.63
  1. aAntibiotics not listed should be considered to be below their respective limits of detection
  2. bThis represents a prevalence of 2.50% for each compound; analyte found in only one sample
  3. cMedicated animal feed with active ingredients not indicated on the label
  4. dMedicated animal feed with the active ingredient concentration above what is indicated on the label