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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of data collected from the survey (n = 100)

From: Ochratoxin A in black pepper, white pepper and clove sold in Yaoundé (Cameroon) markets: contamination levels and consumers’ practices increasing health risk

Parameters Incidence (%)a Parameters Incidence (%)a Parameters Incidence (%)a
1- Socio-demographic variables
Gender   Age   Educational level  
 Male 15 <21 years 9 None 4
 Female 85 21–35 years 66 Primary 17
   >35 years 25 Secondary 32
Marital status     University 47
 Single 52 Main activity    
 Married 43 Housekeepers 21   
 Divorced 5 Students 25   
   Workers 44   
   other 10   
2- Use and consumption of spices
Use for food preparation   Use for folklore medicine   Average quantity used per meal  
 As condiments 91/93/80 Tooth pain 0/0/45 <5 g 69/62/85
 As aroma 24/33/64 Childbirth 2/1/12 5–10 25/24/15
   Stomach pain 5/0/8 10–15 3/10/0
Consumption frequencyb   Stress 0/0/4 15–20 1/2/0
  Bad Breath 0/0/3 >20 2/2/0
 Rarely 63/23/57 Cold 0/0/3   
 Averagely 24/30/21     
 Highly 12/47/20     
3-Quality indicators
When purchasing   When storing at home    
 Colour 48/48/58 Colour 30/26/32   
 Odour 77/76/73 Odour 36/37/30   
 Taste 5/6/4 Presence of moulds 39/32/34   
 None 5/5/7 Humidity 8/5/4   
   Texture 6/0/0   
   None 13/18/20   
4- Storage variables
Storage methods   Average storage duration    
 Plastics bags 47/52/49 <2 weeks 27/28/29   
 Plastic bottles 26/34/40 2–4 weeks 24/26/24   
 Glass bottles 38/48/46 4–8 weeks 25/29/25   
   8–12 weeks 10/8/10   
   >12 weeks 14/9/12   
5-Knowledge of fungi and mycotoxins
Knowledge of fungal contamination   Knowledge of mycotoxin contamination   Knowledge of health risks associated with fungal contamination  
 Yes 94 Yes 12 Yes 12
 No 6 No 88 No 88
  1. aB/W/C: % for Black pepper/White pepper/Clove
  2. bRarely (At most once a week); Averagely (twice a week); Highly (At least thrice a week)