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Table 3 Metal concentrations in vegetables grown in wastewater-irrigated urban farming sites

From: Heavy metal accumulation and health risk assessment in wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming sites of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Site Vegetable Mean concentration (mg kg−1)
Cd Co Cr Cu Ni Pb Zn
Sora Amba Lactuca sativa var. crispa 0.54(0.06) 0.42(0.08) 5.28(0.50) 23.9(0.69) 3.49(0.40) 10.5(0.88) 57.7(8.91)
Brassica carinata A. Br. 0.34(0.03) 0.32(0.03) 4.47(0.71) 12.0(1.26) 3.13(0.50) 7.16(1.03) 80.2(16.6)
Beta Vulgaris var. cicla 0.39(0.05) 0.54(0.08) 2.85(0.33) 17.0(1.16) 5.94(0.36) 8.63(0.74) 84.8(9.21)
Lekunda Lactuca sativa var. crispa 0.73(0.11) 0.70(0.07) 6.29(0.63) 34.3(1.54) 5.44(0.59) 10.7(0.82) 87.1(10.7)
Brassica carinata A. Br. 0.45(0.11) 0.51(0.10) 3.11(0.54) 16.0(1.82) 2.87(0.49) 6.52(0.68) 76.8(5.32)
Beta Vulgaris var. cicla 0.62(0.08) 0.91(0.06) 3.81(0.30) 38.9(1.42) 4.92(0.37) 12.6(1.50) 105(8.26)
Peacock-Urael Lactuca sativa var. crispa 0.56(0.11) 0.48(0.12) 2.38(0.18) 13.7(1.02) 3.28(0.46) 8.88(0.95) 63.4(5.22)
Brassica carinata A. Br. 0.53(0.20) 0.65(0.12) 1.56(0.14) 14.5(1.24) 2.78(0.42) 6.12(0.83) 89.6(10.2)
Beta Vulgaris var. cicla 0.76(0.11) 0.76(0.04) 2.36(0.22) 24.3(1.06) 5.24(0.52) 9.79(0.83) 87.0(8.70)
Peacock-Bole Lactuca sativa var. crispa 0.40(0.10) 0.53(0.07) 3.08(0.10) 23.2(1.03) 5.21(0.55) 12.9(0.61) 56.9(3.90)
Brassica carinata A. Br. 0.35(0.04) 0.52(0.12) 1.17(0.20) 21.4(1.24) 3.01(0.53) 7.90(0.88) 66.3(6.12)
Beta Vulgaris var. cicla 0.31(0.01) 0.59(0.05) 3.43(0.36) 23.6(1.74) 4.54(0.39) 13.2(0.96) 82.5(7.70)
Kera Lactuca sativa var. crispa 1.59(0.13) 0.81(0.06) 8.01(0.60) 36.2(1.67) 2.78(0.31) 12.7(0.87) 94.4(11.6)
Brassica carinata A. Br. 0.87(0.12) 0.78(0.07) 4.06(0.68) 21.5(1.54) 2.34(0.42) 8.57(0.63) 105(9.80)
Beta Vulgaris var. cicla 1.09(0.11) 1.23(0.16) 5.53(0.79) 25.1(1.83) 4.12(0.29) 15.9(0.90) 129(10.2)
Mekanissa Lactuca sativa var. crispa 0.78(0.08) 1.45(0.08) 5.07(0.67) 31.0(8.32) 7.86(0.58) 9.22(1.57) 67.7(4.93)
Brassica carinata A. Br. 0.71(0.13) 0.63(0.08) 6.32(0.68) 15.5(1.44) 4.00(0.34) 6.74(1.20) 91.3(9.22)
Beta Vulgaris var. cicla 0.86(0.07) 1.86(0.17) 6.21(0.55) 31.3(3.73) 6.67(0.55) 8.79(1.31) 78.9(11.5)
Lafto Lactuca sativa var. crispa 1.79(0.12) 1.30(0.15) 6.95(0.32) 35.0(1.30) 4.30(0.56) 8.46(1.47) 82.5(10.9)
Brassica carinata A. Br. 1.17(0.06) 0.71(0.10) 6.57(0.42) 27.8(2.58) 5.19(0.71) 9.50(1.57) 109(11.9)
Beta Vulgaris var. cicla 1.65(0.09) 1.61(0.07) 7.62(0.48) 37.1(4.08) 7.99(0.84) 13.8(1.37) 117(9.42)
Hana-Mariam Lactuca sativa var. crispa 0.49(0.15) 0.91(0.05) 5.40(0.80) 20.9(1.18) 7.08(0.41) 9.14(1.56) 72.2(7.84)
Brassica carinata A. Br. 0.44(0.09) 0.78(0.07) 2.09(0.38) 17.4(1.09) 3.78(0.32) 4.14(0.50) 85.5(9.95)
Beta Vulgaris var. cicla 0.68(0.12) 1.83(0.16) 4.58(0.35) 30.3(1.14) 10.3(0.66) 7.19(1.66) 77.7(11.7)
Akaki08 Lactuca sativa var. crispa 0.80(0.17) 0.78(0.08) 2.88(0.28) 24.7(1.36) 5.30(0.39) 9.23(0.65) 67.6(5.01)
Brassica carinata A. Br. 0.39(0.08) 0.70(0.10) 5.13(0.80) 22.9(1.50) 3.14(0.21) 4.95(0.78) 84.1(6.82)
Beta Vulgaris var. cicla 0.58(0.09) 1.47(0.10) 3.93(0.39) 44.3(4.44) 6.40(0.47) 8.61(1.80) 98.9(5.81)
Akaki Lactuca sativa var. crispa 1.05(0.14) 0.94(0.12) 5.39(0.62) 19.6(1.83) 4.42(0.92) 6.92(1.18) 79.8(8.87)
Brassica carinata A. Br. 0.72(0.09) 0.73(0.11) 3.92(0.58) 13.3(1.00) 3.29(0.33) 4.84(0.53) 92.6(9.34)
Beta Vulgaris var. cicla 0.71(0.11) 1.18(0.14) 3.89(0.15) 34.2(4.23) 5.98(0.68) 11.8(1.04) 87.5(9.46)
RML (mg kg−1 dry weight)   2.35a 50b 27.1c 235d 800d 3.53a 588d
  1. RML; 0.085 was taken as conversion factor, to convert fresh green vegetable weight to dry weight (Qureshi et al. 2016)
  2. Sources: a(FAO/WHO-codex alimentarius commission 2001; EC 2006)
  3. b(Pendias and Pendias 1992)
  4. c(Weigert 1991)
  5. d(Mapanda et al. (2007) based on UK and FAO/WHO standards)
  6. Figures in parentheses represent standard deviation