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Table 1 Wine Pb concentration by country

From: A human health risk assessment of lead (Pb) ingestion among adult wine consumers

Country N (%) Mean Pb (μg/L) References
Argentina 20 (4%) 72.5 (Lara et al. 2005)
Australia 28 (6%) 5.0 (Hague et al. 2008; Kristensen et al. 2016)
Brazil 13 (3%) 75.4 (Dessuy et al. 2008; Dessuy et al. 2011; Schiavo et al. 2008)
Bulgaria 2 (<1%) 21.0 (Karadjova et al. 2007)
Chile 6 (1%) 42.4 (Dessuy et al. 2008; Schiavo et al. 2008)
China 3 (1%) 22.4 (Wu et al. 2007)
Croatia 8 (2%) 32.6 (Tariba et al. 2011)
France 1 (<1%) 8.0 (Ajtony et al. 2008)
Germany 2 (<1%) 20.4 (Ajtony et al. 2008)
Hungary 35 (7%) 35.0 (Ajtony et al. 2008)
Italy 68 (14%) 47.2 (Elçi et al. 2009; Illuminati et al. 2014; Karadjova et al. 2007; La Pera et al. 2008)
Macedonia 2 (<1%) 22.3 (Karadjova et al. 2007)
Portugal 43 (9%) 51.6 (Catarino et al. 2006; Catarino et al. 2007; da Costa et al. 2014; Santos et al. 2013; Yamasaki et al. 2012)
Romania 63 (13%) 40.5 (Bora et al. 2015; Geana et al. 2013)
Spain 86 (18%) 15.7 (Ajtony et al. 2008, Dessuy et al. 2008, Gonzalvez et al. 2008; Grindlay et al. 2009; Grindlay et al. 2008; Iglesias et al. 2007; Moreno et al. 2007)
Turkey 23 (5%) 0.1 (Aydin et al. 2010; Yıldız et al. 2011)
Ukraine 8 (2%) 0.5 (Vystavna et al. 2014)
United States 61 (13%) 4.4 (Elçi et al. 2009; Wilson 2015)
Total 472 (100%) 30.4