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Table 1 Comparison of General US dietary exposure to pesticides with Chronic Reference Doses (RfDs)

From: Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues in the United States

Pesticide General US Chronic RfD %RfD
  Exposure (ng/kg/day)  
  (ng/kg/day)   
Acephate 18.4281 4000 0.4607
Atrazine 0.0072 35000 <0.0001
Azinphos-methyl 11.1229 5000 0.2225
Azoxystrobin 1.1496 180000 0.0006
Benomyl 9.2942 50000 0.0186
Bifenthrin 0.9997 15000 0.0067
Biphenyl 0.3963 500000 0.0001
Captan 9.6072 130000 0.0074
Carbaryl 10.2073 100000 0.0102
Carbofuran 0.3657 5000 0.0073
Chlordane (total) 0.0992 500 0.0198
 Chlordane, cis 0.0479   
 Chlordane, trans 0.0125   
 Nonachlor, trans 0.0367   
 Octachlor epoxide 0.0020   
Chloropropham 287.7204 200000 0.1439
Chlorothalonil 0.1205 15000 0.0008
Chlorpyrifos 2.3760 3000 0.0792
Chlorpyrifos-methyl 12.7964 10000 0.1280
Clopyralid 0.8296 150000 0.0006
Coumaphos 0.0068 700 0.0010
Cyfluthrin 0.2220 24000 0.0009
Cypermethrin 8.9699 10000 0.0897
Cyprodinil 12.9971 37500 0.0347
2,4-D 0.6738 10000 0.0067
DCPA 0.2398 10000 0.0024
DDT, total 6.6482 500 1.3296
 DDE, p, p’ 5.9085   
 DDT, o, p’ 0.0120   
 DDT, p, p’ 0.1471   
 TDE, o, p’ 0.0258   
 TDE, p, p’ 0.5547   
DEF 0.1086 100 0.1086
Diazinon 0.2394 200 0.1197
Dicamba 0.7488 30000 0.0025
Dichloran, total 2.9128 2500 0.1165
 Dichloran 2.8691   
 2,4-Dichloro-6-nitrobenzeneamine 0.0437   
Dicofol, total 0.3547 200000 0.0002
 Dicofol, o, p’ 0.0345   
 Dicofol, p, p’ 0.3201   
Dieldrin 0.9841 50 1.9683
Dimethoate 1.5595 200 0.7797
Diphenylamine 79.6903 25000 0.3188
Endosulfan, total 9.3737 6000 0.1562
 Endosulfan I 1.6268   
 Endosulfan II 2.1831   
 Endosulfan sulfate 5.5638   
Endrin 0.0228 300 0.0076
Esfenvalerate 0.0281 1800 0.0016
Ethion, total 0.4912 500 0.0982
 Ethion 0.4869   
 Ethion, oxygen analog 0.0043   
Ethoxyquin 0.5940 20000 0.0030
Famoxadone 0.1185 1400 0.0085
Fenarimol 0.0196 65000 <0.0001
Fenhexamid 0.9919 200000 0.0005
Fenitrothion 0.0132 1500 0.0009
Fenoxaprop-ethyl 0.0002 15000 <0.0001
Fenpropathrin 3.3847 25000 0.0135
Fenvalerate 0.3790 25000 0.0015
Fludioxonil 21.1253 30000 0.0704
Heptachlor 0.0593 13 0.4563
Imazalil 0.5742 13000 0.0044
Iprodione, total 6.4931 40000 0.0162
 Iprodione 6.1491   
 Iprodione metabolite 0.3441   
Lambda-cyhalothrin 0.6892 5000 0.0138
Lindane 0.0693 300 0.0231
Linuron 0.2379 2000 0.0119
Malathion 29.6982 20000 0.1485
Metalaxyl 1.0858 60000 0.0018
Methamidophos 7.9984 50 15.9968
Methidathion 0.9529 1000 0.0953
Methomyl 1.9347 25000 0.0077
Methoxychlor, total 0.0428 5000 0.0009
 Methoxychlor, o, p’ 0.0173   
 Methoxychlor, p, p’ 0.0255   
Mirex 0.0020 200 0.0010
Omethoate 0.8798 300 0.2933
Oxamyl 0.0466 25000 0.0002
Permethrin, total 73.4122 50000 0.1468
 Permethrin, cis 35.4246   
 Permethrin, trans 37.9876   
Phenylphenol, ortho 11.3419 20000 0.0567
Phosalone 0.0491 2000 0.0025
Phosmet 4.7271 20000 0.0236
Piperonyl butoxide 0.0029 6300000 <0.0001
Pirimiphos-methyl 6.3524 10000 0.0635
Procymidone 0.0247 35000 0.0001
Propargite 11.6608 20000 0.0583
Propiconazole 0.0002 13000 <0.0001
Quinclorac 1.0475 380000 0.0003
Quinoxyfen 0.2185 200000 0.0001
Quintozene 0.0743 3000 0.0025
Tecnazene 0.0008 20000 <0.0001
Thiabendazole 77.7198 100000 0.0777
Triadimefon 0.0033 10000 <0.0001
Triclopyr 0.0398 50000 0.0001
Trifloxystrobin 0.3277 100000 0.0003
Vinclozolin 0.8230 25000 0.0033